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14 Different Types Of Lathe Cutting Tools Used In Lathe Machines

by Chris Arcon
Lathe-Machine-Cutting-Tools-2

Types of Lathe Cutting Tools

A lathe is a machine that rotates a workpiece around an axis of rotation such as turning, undercutting, knurling, drilling, facing, boring, and cutting, with lathe cutting tools that are applied to the workpiece to form objects. symmetry about that axis.

A tool used for general-purpose work is a single-point tool, but for special operations, a multi-point tool can be used. Watch the video below to understand how the lathe machine works.

According to the process of using lathe cutting tools in lathe machine work, different types of lathe cutting tools are needed in different operations. as written below,

Lathe Cutting Tools:

Below are the types of lathe cutting tools used in lathe machines:

  1. Turning tool.
  2. Chamfering tool.
  3. Shoulder Turning Tool
  4. Thread cutting tool.
  5. Internal thread cutting tool.
  6. Facing tool.
  7. Grooving tool.
  8. Forming tool.
  9. Boring tool.
  10. Parting-off tool.
  11. Counterboring tool
  12. Undercutting tool
  13. According to the method of applying feed
    1. Right-hand tool
    2. Left-hand tool
    3. Round Nose

1. Turning Tool

There are mainly two classes of turning tool:

  1. Rough turning tool.
  2. Finish turning tool.

1.1 Rough Turning Tool

Rough Turning Tool

The main function of a rough turning tool is to remove the maximum amount of metal in the minimum amount of time that the tool, work and machine will allow. The cutting angle is ground enough to withstand the maximum cutting pressure.

1.2 Finish Turning Tool

Finish Turning Tool

Turning tools are used to remove very small amounts of metal. The tool angle is so ground that it can create a very smooth and precise surface.

2. Chamfering Tool

Straight turning tools are also used as chamfering tools when the cutting edges are set at a chamfer angle.

Chamfering

Where a large number of chamfer jobs are required, a special chamfering tool is used that has a lateral cutting edge from the ground to the angle of the chamfer.

3. Shoulder Turning Tool

Shoulder Turning

A square shoulder is turned by a knife-edged turning tool or facing tool. A beveled shoulder can be rotated by a straight curved tool that has one side cutting edge angle and zero nose radius. The fillet shoulder is replaced by a straight turning tool with the nose radius corresponding to the work fillet radius.

4. Thread Cutting Tool

4.1 External Thread Cutting Tool

Metric, B.S.W or American “V” thread is produced by Single Point Thread Cutting Tool. Its cutting edges are sharpened according to the size and shape of the cutting thread.

Thread Cutting

The size of the tool is determined by the angle involved at the nose of the tool which should correspond to the angle of the thread. This can be 60° for metric threads or 55° for B.S.W threads.

They included the angle on the nose of the tool which should correspond to the angle of the thread. This can be 60° for metric threads or 55° for B.S.W threads.

The size or cross-section of the cutting edge of the tool depends on the pitch of the thread. The picture below is an H.S.S.  thread cutting tool.

Thread Cutting

Therefore different tools are used to produce precise threads for machining different screw threads with different pitches. The nose of the instrument is pointed, flat or rounded, depending on the size of the thread root.

A thread tool gauge is used to check the size and shape of a tool after it has been ground.

4.1.1 Tool for cutting square threads

The side clearance of the tool is of prime importance for cutting square threads so that the tool does not interfere or rub against the vertical flank of the thread.

TOOL FOR CUTTING SQUARE THREAD EQUATION

As a rule, the front side clearance angle is determined by adding 5° to the helix angle of the thread and the back side clearance is obtained by subtracting 5° from the helix angle if the front side clearance angle is and . Lateral clearance angle, then from the formula:

The width of the cutting edge should be equal to half the pitch of the thread.

Square Thread Cutting Tool

A small clearance angle of 1° to 2° is provided at the edge of the tool so that the surface does not cut with the work.

5. Internal Thread Cutting Tool

The cutting edge of the tool is similar to that of an external thread cutting tool but the front clearance angle is greatly increased like that of a boring tool.

The instrument is of a lattice orbital type and is held on a boring bar. The point of the tool should be square with the work.

6. Facing Tool

Facing Tool

A facing tool removes metal through its lateral cutting edges. So there is no need for a top rack in facing tools. This figure shows that H.S.S. A combat device designed to end an operation.

Facing Tool

The tool has a 2° side cutting edge angle and can adjust to a 34° end cutting edge angle in the space between the work end and 60° dead center, leaving 2° of clearance on either side.

The standard shank section is 20Χ20, 25Χ25, 32Χ32, 40Χ40, and 50Χ55 all expressed in mm. The length of the tool is 125, 140,170, 200 and 240 mm and the nose radius varies from 0.5 to 1.6 mm.

7. Grooving Tool

Grooving

The Grooving Tool is similar to the Parting-Off Tool shown in the figure. The cutting edges are square, round or “V” shaped according to the shape of the groove.

8. Forming Tool

Using curved profiles can have an impact by,

  1. Ordinary lathe tools,
  2. Flat forming tools,
  3. Circular forming tools.

A common lathe turning tool can serve the purpose where the copy attachment is used to reproduce the look of the sample. There are two types of flat forming equipment:

  1. Simple forming tools
  2. Flat dovetail forming tools.

Simple forming tools

These tools have their cutting edge in the form of grooves, undercuts or cutting threads.

Forming Operation

The flat dovetail forming tool consists of a wide cutting edge to conform to the desired shape. The dovetail end of the tool is fitted into a special tool holder. The front rack is not provided but an adequate front clearance angle is given and it ranges from 10° to 15°.

Regrinding is always done at the top of the tool so that the size of the tool does not change.

Circular Form Tools

These tools are preferred in manufacturing because very long cutting surfaces can be used resulting in longer tool life.

The center of the tool is set slightly above the center line of the work to provide an effective front clearance angle on the tool. If the centers are the same height the tool will rub against the work.

The center of the tool is usually 1/20 to 1/10 of the tool diameter greater than the center line of the lathe. This height is called ‘offset’. Regrinding is done by flat grinding.

9. Boring Tool

Boring

The boring tool is similar to the left outer turning tool as far as its cutting edge is concerned.

The tool may be of a bit type inserted into a boring bar or holder, or of a forged type with a tool shank. This figure shows that H.S.S. A tool bit is inserted into the boring bar.

The boring bar is made of mild steel with a slot or hole cut into it to accommodate a tool bit that is locked by an Allen screw. The amount of cutting-edge projection of the tool from the center of the bar determines the finished hole diameter of the work.

boring tool

The bit is usually inserted at right angles to the center line of the bar to bore a continuous hole running from one end to the other.

9.1 Different Design of The Boring Tool

The bit is set on an axis projecting forward from the end of the bar to bore the blind hole.

  • A tool bit having two cutting edges at it two ends is used for quick machining.
  • A wide double-bladed cutter is inserted in the boring bar to finish the boring operation.
  • Two or more bits may be inserted in a boring bar for different diameters in one setting.

9.2 Boring Bars:

  • Boring bars are held in the tailstock for boring small holes ranging from 12 to 100 mm.
  • For boring large hole diameters, the boring bar is held in place by two clamp blocks and placed in the tool post.
  • For precision boring or boring in odd-shaped work supported on cross-slides, the bars are supported at the centers and made to rotate.

9.3 Clearance for Boring Tool

  • In a boring tool, the tool’s cutting edge often has enough forward clearance to clear the job.
  • To strengthen the tool point double clearance, primary and secondary, is provided.
  • The smaller the hole diameter the larger should be the front clearance.
  • Larger clearance angles in boring tools require a reduction in rake angles.
  • The nose of the tool is straight or rounded, depending on the type of finish desired.

10. Counterboring Tool

COUNTERBORING TOOL

Counterboring operations can be performed with a normal boring tool. The cutting edge of the tool is so ground that it can leave a shoulder after turning. A counterbore with multiple cutting edges is commonly used.

11. Undercutting Tool

An undercutting or grooving tool has a point and shape of the cutting edge similar to the size of the required groove.

Clearance angles are provided on each side of the tool. To reduce the cutting edge of the groove, longitudinal feed is used. The front clearance angle depends on the working bore.

12. Parting Off Tool

Parting-off tools are usually forged and used as bits for cemented carbide-tipped tools. The parting-off tool is designed to be as narrow as possible to remove the least amount of metal.

Parting Off Tool

The width of the cutting edge is only 3 to 12 mm. The length of the cutting tool that is involved in the work should be slightly longer than the radius of the bar stock.

As the tool penetrates deeper into the work, clearance is provided around the cutting edge of the tool to prevent it from rubbing against the work surface.

Since the equipment is completely finished with cutting, it has no side racks, a little back rack is provided on the equipment to promote the smooth flow of vessels.

According to The Method of Applying Feed

  1. Right-hand tool
  2. Left-hand tool
  3. Round Nose

1. Right-Hand Tool

RIGHT HAND TOOLS

The right-hand device is shown in the figure. is that which is fed from the lathe bed, i.e. from the tailstock to the end of the headstock when performing operations such as turning, thread cutting, etc.

Viewed from above, the end of the operator’s left-hand forms a right-handed instrument, with the nose facing away from the operator.

2. Left-Hand Tool

LEFT HAND TOOLS

The device on the left is shown in the figure. This is what is fed from the left to right end of the lathe bed, that is, from the headstock to the tailstock end.

A left-handed tool is used for the operation of cutting or turning a left-hand thread that leaves a shoulder at the right end of the workpiece.

The cutting edge of a left-handed tool is made at its right end when viewed from above and its nose is turned away from the operator.

A left-hand tool may also be used for facing operations.

3. Round Nose Tool

ROUND HAND TOOLS

An instrument for turning a round nose fitted into a figure. Perhaps fed from left to right or right to left-hand end of the lathe bed. For this reason, they do not have a back rack and a side rack.

In some cases, a small back rack is provided on the tool. Round nose turning tools are commonly used for finish turning operations.

FAQs.

What are the different cutting tools used in the lathe machine?

Below are the types of lathe cutting tools used in lathe machines:

  1. Turning tool.
  2. Chamfering tool.
  3. Shoulder Turning Tool
  4. Thread cutting tool.
  5. Internal thread cutting tool.
  6. Facing tool.
  7. Grooving tool.
  8. Forming tool.
  9. Boring tool.
  10. Parting-off tool.
  11. Counterboring tool
  12. Undercutting tool
  13. According to the method of applying feed
    1. Right-hand tool
    2. Left-hand tool
    3. Round Nose

How many tools are there in a lathe machine?

There are 13 Different Types of Lathes Tools

What kind of tool is a lathe?

A lathe is a machining tool primarily used for shaping metal or wood. It works by rotating the workpiece around a stationary cutting tool. The main use is to remove unwanted portions of material, leaving behind a well shaped workpiece.

Which is not a cutting tool?

Which of the following is not a cutting tool? Explanation: Compass saws, combat saws and strong chisels are examples of cutting tools. Pliers are used to pull out the damaged nails.

What is right hand cutting tool?

A cutter whose all flutes are turned clockwise when viewed from both ends.

What is a turning tool?

Turning tools are used on a lathe to cut or finish the outer diameter of the workpiece. Turning tools can be used to produce cylindrical parts. In its basic form, turning can be defined as the machining of the outer surface with a rotating workpiece or with a single-point cutting tool.

How many types of CNC tools are there?

But what really makes CNC machines so versatile are the near-endless options you get with cutting tools. This article presents the nine different types of equipment used in CNC machines and their functions.

What are the 4 types of cutting tools?

  • Solid. Typically, this type of cutter is used as a lathe turning tool to perform turning operations.
  • A tipped tool. This cutter was developed from different materials.
  • Tool Bit. This is a non-rotating cutter.
  • grain size. The cutting tools depend on the size of the grain and the number of grains.
  • Pointed Tool.

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